Sunday, July 1, 2012

Mejor Economic Development Project

Uma Oya Multipurpose Hydropower Project- Sri Lanka
Uma Oya is a river flows down from the central hills to join the Mahaweli river. It passes through Welimada in the Uva province providing water to large extent of rice fields and other agricultural lands. Under the Uma Oya Hydropower project water will be diverted to Kirindi Oya basin which will take water to Hambantota through a more than 19 km long underground tunnel across mountains in Bandarawela by creating a dam at Puhulpola (in Welimada) and a reservoir in Diaraba. The project cost of headwork is USD 529,059,197 which is equivalent to SLR 60,841,807,770. In brief, 85% of the project cost is provided by a loan from Export Development Bank of Iran and the rest 15% is supplied by the Government of Sri Lanka.
Unfortunately the EIA states that “Certain costs and benefits have not been included in the analysis due to unavailability of methodologies and lack of data.” This includes Impacts on flora and fauna, geological impacts, soil erosion, noise pollution, etc, during the construction stage, River pollution and its long term cumulative impacts on aquatic flora, fauna and humans, clearing of forest areas and damages to ecosystems and functions performed by such ecosystems, including fragmentation, impacts on humans forced into involuntary resettlement, Impacts on wildlife, including endangered elephants and other rare/endemic species, Impacts on aquatic fauna, including anadromous and migratory fish species, Impacts on sites of historical, cultural and religious significance. It is highly erroneous to say that these methodologies ate not available. By not including values for these impacts of the proposed project, the EIA does not contain a true environmental cost-benefit analysis of the proposed project. If the costs of any of these impacts, either individually or separately, are significant, then the project could be a financial as well as an environmental tragedy. For example, if the project were to lead to the extinction of Sri Lanka’s remaining elephant population, would the production of an additional 231 GW-hr of electricity offset the cost of this tragic result?
The proposed EIA repeatedly stated the serious impacts to the biodiversity specially the fauna. The project would cause substantial impacts to aquatic life, especially through fragmentation of habitat. The EIA, then, recognize the risk of extinction for migratory species. Among the migratory species who live in the area there are Garra ceylonensis and Garra ceylonensis phillipsi. Both endemic species that, due to the project, can run to extinction. But the impact of the fragmentation of habitats will affect all the species and also the other indigenous species of the area Puntius bimaculatus.
In Section 5.4.7 of Management Actions to Mitigate Impact on Aquatic Inhabitants, it states that “However, these species are available in the other undisturbed tributaries of the country. Therefore, no mitigation is recommended as the fish ladders are very expensive and therefore not practical for this project”.
The EIA categorizes the impact of the project on fauna by stating: “Moderate impact on the animals living associated with Victoria-Randenigala-Rantambe Sanctuary is anticipated. This is due to the diversion of Uma Oya water away from it normal path where this Sanctuary is located. Animals living there can face water scarcity problems especially elephants that are ranging downstream areas of Uma Oya. Similarly other activities that take away wildlife habitats located close proximity to any form of reserve will have an impact on species that are having larger home ranges covering outside areas.”
Especially, the EIA recognize an impact on reaming bears. Sri Lankan Sloth Bear is a subspecies of the Sloth Bear who live in Sri Lanka and who is considered Critically Endangered and its population is considered in decrease by the IUCN. However the EIA states: “Last reaming Bear habitats close proximity to Bogahapttiya area and Slender Loris habitats are also affected.”
The EIA also recognize a strong impact on elephant. Of course there is a current debate whether Sri Lanka has too many elephants that cannot be sustained. The EIA of the Uma Oya project clearly states: “The Uma Oya development project has significant impact on elephants.” “Nearly more than 1500 elephants inhabit the area and majority will be affected covering Hambantota and Moneragala Districts.”
The Project will be constructed by the Hardish Engineering Company from Iran.
Read the full comments to the EIA  
copy by web site

Thursday, May 24, 2012

Economic Development Project in Sri Lanka -V



The President declared open the renovated famous 18 Bend (Dahaata Wanguwa) Road of Sri Lanka's hill country today (May 06) at a ceremony in Ududumbara.
The road stretch of 41 kilometer has been widened to 15 meters and carpeted from Udathenna to Mahiyanganaya at a cost of five billion rupees. Asian Development Bank provided the financial assistance for the renovation, Eight bridges and 320 box culverts have been reconstructed while 37 culverts were widened along the road,
The 18 hair-pin bends were widened on a special request by President Mahinda Rajapaksa who instructed the officials to renovate the road without causing any damage to the historical value and natural beauty of the Kandy-Mahiyanganaya road which has a history of over 2,500 years. The widened and carpeted well-known 18 hairpin bend road will ease the high traffic congestion while reducing the dangerous nature of the road due to the narrowness and precipitous surrounding. The road was a bottleneck for motorists as it is not wide enough to ensure smooth flow of traffic. Constant heavy traffic congestion existed on the road throughout the whole day.
The 18-bend road, which was constructed by the British colonial rulers in the mid-19th century as an estate supply route, is considered to provide a challenging driving experience and picturesque view. It connects Kandy to Mahiyanganaya and stretches up to Padiyathalawa.
Courtesy : Department of Government Information   

Monday, May 21, 2012

Major Economic Development Project in Sri Lanka Step IV

UKHP is a run of river hydro power project with an installed capacity of 150MW (consisting of two 75MW units) and It will produce 409GWh per year. It has the following components:
  • A dam located close to the town of Talawakelle with a height of 35.5m and a crest length of 180m. It will have a gross storage of 2.5 MCM with an effective capacity of 0.8 MCM with a surface area of 0.25km2 (60 acres). Full supply level for the reservoir will be 1,194 meters above mean sea level (msl), the minimum operating level will be 1190m msl and the normal tail water level 703m msl.
  • A head race tunnel 4.5m/5+.2m in diameter lined and unlined and 12.89km in length, running north from the dam towards the Pundal Oya Falls before turning to the northwest towards the existing Kotmale dam and reservoir. (The maximum gross head between the reservoir and the powerhouse will be 491m).
  • An upstream surge tank 12m in diameter and 98m high with a restricted opening, located on the crest of the power house.
  • The pen stock formed by an underground incline shaft starting with a diameter of 4.5m and reducing to 1.45m. It will be 793m in length, consisting of one lane of 745m and two lanes of 48m.
  • An underground powerhouse located at Niyamgamdora, (2km upstream of the confluence of Puna Oya and Kotmale Oya) with dimensions of 66.3m L x 18.8m W x 36.5m H to house two units of 77,000kW turbines, two vertical axis three phase 88,000kVA generators, two 3-phase, transformers and a 220kV Gas Insulator Switchgear (GIS) substation.
  • An outdoor switchyard, 36.5m wide and 130m long, located at Niyamgamdora, to connect the Power House to a 220kV double circuit transmission line.
  • 220kV double circuit transmission line of 18km length to transmit power generated to existing Kotmale Substation and the associated switch yard extensions.

Major Economic Development Project in Sri Lanka Step III


The Mahaweli Project is the largest Multi Purpose Development Project ever undertaken in Sri Lanka. Mahaweli Master Plan drawn up during 1964 – 1968 for harnessing the waters of the Mahaweli envisaged the development of 365,000 ha for agriculture and installation of 600 MW of Hydro-Power capacity.
The total Mahaweli Project Area covers 39 percent of the whole island, 55 percent of the Dry Zone, and encompasses 60 percent of the irrigable land area of Sri Lanka

The Project is to provide Irrigation for agriculture and water for domestic use, generate hydro-power for the whole range of agro-based industry in the Mahaweli areas and elsewhere, provide effective flood control and most importantly open up new land for agriculture development.

The project comprises five Major Dams; Kotmale, Victoria, Randenigala–Rantambe, Maduru Oya and Moragahakanda which has yet to be constructed.

Moragahakanda & Kaluganga Development Projects

Moragahakanda & Kaluganga Development Project is the largest reservoir project to be taken up for development under the Mahaweli River Development Programme.

A full feasibility study of the Moragahakanda Project combined with the Kaluganga Development Project was completed in 2004 by the Lahmeyer International, in association with the Central Engineering Consultancy Bureau (CECB) of Sri Lanka, United Consulting Group (KUWAIT) and Chuo Kaihatsu Corporation, Japan.

Objectives of the Projects
- To provide irrigation water facilities to 81,422 ha in the Dry Zone of Sri Lanka
- Potable and Industrial Water Supply to Anuradhapura and Trincomalee towns
- Generation of electricity by hydro power


The project area is located in the Central and North Central Provinces in Sri Lanka.

Project Configuration

The project consists of
(a) Construction of two major reservoirs namely; Moragahakanda and Kaluganga reservoirs,
(b) A conveyance system consisting of two tunnels and transfer canals and
(c ) A power house of 20 MW installed capacity.

Principal Project Features

Moragahakanda Reservoir
Type of Dam: A roller compacted concrete main dam and two rock fill saddle dams.
Maximum dam height: 65 metres
Active Storage : 521 million cubic metres

Kaluganga Reservoir

Type of Dam A rock fill main dam and two saddle dams, one rock fill and the other earth
Maximum Dam Height 67 metres
Active Storage 144 million cubic metres
Conveyance System
Tunnels 1. Kalunga – Moragahakanda transfer tunnel 15 m3/sec. capacity, length
3.2 km

2. Second Bowatenna Tunnel 25 m3/sec. capacity, length 7.2 km
Conveyance Canals : Total length approximately 50 Km.

Project Cost

Cost benefit

The investment cost of the project is US $ 382 million. The Economic Internal Rate of Return (EIRR) is 22%.

Direct Benefits

Agriculture :
Cropping intensity which varies less than 100% to 154% in the different areas will be raised to around 181% on the average. The direct benefits include increased rice yield per hectare with an additional agricultural production of 109,000 tons annually. The net annual agricultural benefit will be US $ 27.7 million in financial terms.
Inland Fishery:
The average annual fish production potential of the reservoir is estimated to be around 4,700 tons per year, representing a net benefit of US $ 1.67 million annually.
Potable and Industrial Water Supply :
An increased supply of 64 MCM (by the year 2032) could be ensured towards meeting the potable and industrial water needs in the district of Matale, Anuradhapura, Trincomalee and Polonnaruwa from the surface water sources in the Ambanganga basin and its associated tanks and canals with the implementation of the project.

Power generation:

Annual fuel cost savings with the hydropower produced will be around US $ 2.49 annual average.

Environmental Management Plan

The following constitute the environmental management action plan that has been proposed as part of the project :
a) Reforestation of about 2000 ha in the Amban Ganga Basin
b) Clearing of elephant corridor between Giritale – Minneriya nature reserve
c) Habitat enrichment in proposed corridor between Wasgamuwa National Park and Victoria – Randenigala – Rantambe Sanctuary.
d) Research and development in the proposed corridor
e) Establishment of a 100 m wide reservation around the reservoirs.
f) Rehabilitation of tanks in adjacent nature reserves
g) Establishment of electric elephant fence around the resettlement area

Tuesday, May 15, 2012

Major economic development projeci in Sri Lanka - step II

International Airport -Hambantota
Vision of the government of Sri Lanka is to enhanced economy of least developed regions of the Island. Hambantota and Monaragala districts are identified as potential region and Greater Hambantota development programme was designed to uplift economic activities of the region. The concept of a second international airport for Sri Lanka originated in 1938. The Government’s Manifesto contained in the “Mahinda Chintana” emphasizes the establishment of a second international airport in Sri Lanka.

Benefits of the Project

• Establishment of the International Airport at Southern region will serve as the alternate International Airport to Bandaranaike International Airport at Katunayake.

• New Ventures such as general aviation and non-aviation sports facilities would be available with airport as availability of low cost land and services.

• This Airport could be ideal to provide airport related industries such as Aircraft paintings, Aircraft work shops, engine repair shops, training schools a flight training facilities at low cost service .

• Growth of agriculture related industries due to improvement of cargo . This will enhance the economy. Cargo will be a lucrative business for this location as it is covered with a huge agricultural processing zone which produce vegetables, fruits and dairy products etc.

• Tourism and hospitality industry would be flourished with the integrated development of port and airport in the southern region.

• Create indirect job opportunities by way of additional business ventures that will form as a result of airport operations.

• Create Aviation related Industries.

• Implementation of Non aviation related industries.

• Create direct semi-skilled and skilled employment opportunities.

Sunday, May 13, 2012

Major economic development projeci in Sri Lanka - step I

Hombanthota port in proud of sri lanka.


Port of Hambantota is planned to develop as a Services and industrial port. Hambantota is one of the lowest per capita income regions in Sri Lanka. Thus, the construction of a Port in Hambantota will be an important catalyst for a major economic development in Sri Lanka and further it will reduce the prevailing higher unemployment percentage in the Hambantota region.
Total estimated construction cost of the Phase 1 of the project is US $ 361 million and out of which, 85% has been funded by the Ex-Im Bank of the People's Republic of China.
The main construction work of the phase I was officially commenced on 15th January 2008 and the project duration is 39 months. The project is planned to be completed by 15th April 2011.
The first vessel was ceremonially  berthed at Hambantota Port on 18th November this year. A number of foreign and local entrepreneurs have already expressed interest to invest in the business opportunities at the port.
In view of the deeper berths and location advantages at Hambantota, it may be possible to attract most of the port related industries. Since the maximum draft at Colombo is about 10m for general cargo vessels, manufactures may invest at Hambantota to get the advantage of “economies of scale.”

Saturday, May 12, 2012

දුප්පත් ජබර මලක්.

ඇත්තටම මඩේ පිපිලා උඩට එන්නෙ නෙළුම් මල් විතරමද...?

 බුදු හාමුදුරුවන්ගෙ සිරිපතුල ලඟ ඉන්න ලැබෙන නිසා වෙන්නැති එයා එච්චර ආඩම්බර...
එත් කවුද අපිව බුදු පුදට ගෙනියන්නෙ නේද.
මේ අයියට විතරයි මගෙ ලස්සන පෙනුනෙ.
තෑන්ක්ස් අයිය..

මේ පාරෙන් එන්න.......

අලුත් විදියට දකින්න............